State System of the Russian Federation

Under the Constitution adopted in 1991 Russia is a Presidential Republic. The name of the country is stated by the Constitution as the Russian Federative Republic. The head of the state is President.

All legislative power in the country is vested in the Federal Assem­bly. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation. It is made up of the representatives of all the subjects of the Federation (two representatives from each subject). The Council enforces federal laws adopted by the State Duma, and all the decrees issued by the President. The Lower Chamber of the Federal Assembly is the State Duma. It is made up of 450 deputies.

The Duma introduces, considers and adopts new bills. A new bill must be also approved by a majority vote. In oder to become a law, the bill must be also enforced by the Council and then by the President.

The members of the Federal Assembly are elected by a popular vote for a four year term. Each Chamber is headed by a Speaker who is elected by the members of the Chambers.

The executive branch is represented by the President and the Gov­ernment which is headed by the Prime Minister.

The President is the Head of the State and the commander-in-chief of the Russian Army. The President decides domestic and international matters, makes treaties, issues decrees, enforces federal laws adopted by the Federal Assembly. The President also forms the Government and appoints the Prime Minister whose candidacy must be approved by the State Duma. Thus the two powers balance each other.

An important role in the Russian State system plays the Constitu­tional Court. It represents the judicial branch. The Constitutional Court may veto any federal law adopted by the Federal Assembly, or a decree issued by the President if the Court regards them contradictory to the Constitution.

The symbol of Russia is a three-coloured flag which replaced the red one in 1991. It has three horizontal stripes white, blue and red. White represents peace, blue represents loyalty and red stands for val­our.

The emblem of Russia is a double-headed eagle, the most ancient symbol going back to the dynasty of the Riuricovichies.

7. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1. согласно Конституции Россия является президентской республикой; 2. глава государства; 3. законода­тельная власть в стране вручена Федеральному Собранию; 4. представители всех субъектов Федерации; 5. утверждает законы; 6. все указы, изданные президентом; 7. нижней палатой Феде­рального Собрания является Государственная Дума; 8. выносит на рассмотрение, изучает и принимает новые законопроекты; 9. новый проект должен быть одобрен большинством голосов; 10. исполнительную власть представляет президент и правительство, которое возглавляет премьер-министр; 11. президент принимает решения по внутриполитическим и международным делам; 12. назначает премьер-министра; 13. он представляет судебную власть; 14. Конституционный суд может приостановить принятие любого федерального закона; 15. если суд усмотрит в них проти­воречие конституции; 16. трехцветный флаг, который заменил красный; 17. символизирует отвагу; 18. гербом России является двуглавый орел; 19. восходящий к правлению династии Рюрико­вичей.

8. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

l. What kind of republic is Russia? 2. What name of the country is stated by the Constitution? 3. Who is the head of the State? 4. How many Chambers does the Federal Assembly consist of? What are they? 5. What is the Council of Federation made up of? 6. What function does the Council of Federation perform? 7. How do we call the Lower Chamber of the Federal Assembly? 8. How many deputies is the State Duma made up of? 9. What are its functions? 10. In what case does a bill become a law? 11. By what vote are the members of the two Chambers elected? And for what period of time are they elected? 12. By whom are the Chambers headed? 13. Who is the head of the Government? 14. What are the functions and powers of the President? 15. Why does the Constitutional Court play an important role in the Russian State sys­tem? 16. What do the three horizontal stripes on the Russian flag stand for? 17. What is the state emblem of Russia?



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